GENERAL KNOWLEDGE ON COVID-19
Q.1: A novel (new) coronavirus was first detected in Wuhan city, Hubei Province, China. What is coronavirus (COVID-19)? Let us know what when where why how about coronavirus or COVID-19.
Ans. Our knowledge of the disease will help individual, family, community, governments, institutions and policymakers how to fight and defeat the corona virus and COVID-19 with tools, technics, precautions, research and policies. There are a number of key things we still don’t understand. A number of studies are being done to answer these questions, including vaccination. The global collaboration on these issues is impressive and we will know a lot more by the time to come.
Q.2: What was the name of Chinese doctor who first warned about coronavirus?
Ans. “A new coronavirus infection has been confirmed and its type is being identified. Inform all family and relatives to be on guard,” Dr. Li Wenliang typed into a chat group with his former medical school classmates on Dec. 30, 2019according to Caixin, a Beijing-based media group in Wuhan, the provincial capital of China’s central Hubei province. As the spiraling crisis emerged, he came to be known as the whistleblower of a virus that ultimately took his life.
A 34-year-old Chinese doctor Li Wenliang, one of the eight whistle-blowers who warned other medics of the coronavirus outbreak but were reprimanded by the police, died of the epidemic on Thursday i.e. 30 January 2020, the state-run Global Times reported. He was reportedly diagnosed with the coronavirus after treating an infected glaucoma patient.
He dropped a bombshell in his medical school alumni group on the popular Chinese messaging app “WeChat” that seven patients from a local seafood market had been diagnosed with a SARS-like illness and quarantined in his hospital.
Li explained that, according to a test he had seen, the illness was a coronavirus, a large family of viruses that includes “severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)” which led to 800 death in China and the world in 2003.
Li told his friends to warn their loved ones privately. But within hours screenshots of his messages had gone viral – without his name being blurred.
“When I saw them circulating online, I realised that it was out of my control and I would probably be punished,” Li was quoted as saying CNN recently.
Soon after he posted the message, Li was accused of rumour-mongering by the Wuhan police.
Q.3: World Health Organisation (WHO) on 11 February, 2020 announced an official name for the disease that is causing the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak? What is the new name of the disease?
Ans. WHO named the disease that is caused by the novel coronavirus as COVID-19.
Q.4: What is Coronavirus?
Ans. Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses and belong to the Nidovirus family or Nidovirales order, which includes coronaviridae, arteriviridae, and roniviridae families.
Q.5: What are the types of coronavirus?
Ans. Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses. Some coronaviruses cause cold-like illnesses in people, while others cause illness in certain types of animals, such as cattle, camels, and bats. Some coronaviruses, such as canine and feline coronaviruses, infect only animals and do not infect humans.
Q.6: When was the coronavirus disease first discovered in China?
Ans. “China’s first confirmed Covid-19 case traced back to November 17”.
Q.7: Where was the first case of coronavirus disease outside of China?
Ans. Officials confirm a case of COVID-19 in Thailand, the first recorded case outside of China.
Q.8: Where did the first confirmed death from COVID-19 occur?
Ans. The first confirmed death was in Wuhan on 9 January 2020. The first death outside of China occurred on 1 February in the Philippines, and the first death outside Asia was in France on 14 February.
Q.9: In which age group the COVID-19 spreads?
Ans. COVID-19 occur in all the age groups. But according to AIMS the infection of coronavirus is mild in children. Persons are at risk who are old and a person suffering from some medical conditions like high blood pressure, cancer, lung disease, diabetes, heart disease.
Q.10: Is the disease seasonal or weather dependent?
Ans. Almost all respiratory viruses (a group that includes COVID-19) are seasonal. This would mean there are fewer infections in the summer, which might lull us into complacency when the fall comes. This is a matter of degree. Because we see the novel coronavirus spreading in Australia and other places in the Southern hemisphere, where the seasons are the opposite of ours, we already know the virus is not as seasonal as influenza is.
Q.11: How many people who never get symptoms have enough of the virus to infect others? What about people who are recovered and have some residual virus—how infectious are they?
Ans. Computer models show that if there are a lot of people who are asymptomatic but infectious, it is much harder to open up without a resurgence in cases. There is a lot of disagreement about how much infection comes from these sources, but we do know that many people with the virus don’t report symptoms, and some portion of those might end up transmitting it.
Q.12: Why do young people have a lower risk of becoming seriously ill when they get infected?
Ans. Understanding the dynamics here will help us weigh the risks of opening schools. It is a complicated subject because even if young people don’t get sick as often, they might still spread the disease to others.
Q.13: What symptoms indicate you should get tested?
Ans. Some countries are taking the temperature of lots of people as an initial screening tool. If doing this helps us find more potential cases, we could use it at airports and large gatherings. We need to target the tests we have at the people at greatest risk since we don’t have enough tests for everyone.
Q.14: Which activities cause the most risk of infection?
Ans. People ask me questions about avoiding prepared food or door knobs or public toilets so they can minimize their risk. I wish I knew what to tell them. Judgements will have to be made about different kinds of gatherings like classes or church going and whether some kind of spacing should be required. In places without good sanitation, there may be spread from fecal contamination since people who are infected shed the virus.
Q.15: Who is most susceptible to the disease?
Ans. We know that older people are at much greater risk of both severe illness and death. Understanding how gender, race, and co-morbidities affect this is a work in progress.
Q.16: What is SCAN and its role towards COVID-19?
Ans. The greater Seattle Coronavirus Assessment Network (SCAN) is a first-of-its-kind disease surveillance platform for COVID-19 that allows participants to use a self-swab test to collect their own nasal samples and send them to a lab without leaving home. As a surveillance program, SCAN’s goal isn’t to test every person or serve as a replacement for medical care. Instead, SCAN is testing a sample of people in the Seattle region, including those who are healthy as well as those who are feeling sick. The test results and other data (like a person’s age, gender, race, zip code, and any underlying health conditions) are used by researchers, data modelers, and public health officials to paint a clearer picture of how COVID-19 is moving through the community, who is at greatest risk, and whether physical distancing measures are working.
Ans. Dr. Anthony Fauci has said he thinks it’ll take around eighteen months to develop a coronavirus vaccine. Though it could be as little as 9 months or as long as two years. Although eighteen months might sound like a long time, this would be the fastest scientists have created a new vaccine. Development usually takes around five years. Once you pick a disease to target, you have to create the vaccine and test it on animals. Then you begin testing for safety and efficacy in humans.
Q.18: What our leaders can do during COVID-19?
Ans. They first need a consistent nationwide approach to shutting down. Second, the central government needs to step up on testing. Far more tests should be made available. We should also aggregate the results so we can quickly identify potential volunteers for clinical trials and know with confidence when it’s time to return to normal. Finally, we need a data-based approach to developing treatments and a vaccine.
Q.19: How did WHO respond and inform to the world community?
Ans. Coronavirus disease is named by the World Health Organisation on 11 February, 2020 as “COVID-19”. World Health Organisation (WHO) declared a global emergency on 30 January, 2020.
Q.20: What is Favipiravir?
Ans. Favipiravir is an antiviral COVID-19 drug. Glenmark Pharmaceuticals under the brand name FabiFlu has launched an antiviral drug Favipiravir. It is India’s first COVID-19 drug launched, priced at Rs 103 per tablet.
Q.21: How many countries, areas or territories are suffering from novel coronavirus outbreak in the World?
Ans. According to WHO, around 216 countries, areas or territories are suffering from novel coronavirus or COVID-19 outbreak in the world till 11 June, 2020.
Q.22: Thailand announced that it has proceeded to test its novel coronavirus vaccine on which animal/bird?
Ans. After seeing positive results on mice now Thailand announced that it has proceeded to test its novel coronavirus vaccine on monkeys. The vaccine uses messenger RNA (mRNA) technology to weaken the strain of the virus and produce antigens to fight with the virus from the root.
Q.23: In a study, which cells are found in COVID-19 patients ‘bode well’ for long term immunity?
Ans. T cells are known as immune warriors help us fight some viruses, but their importance for battling SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, has been unclear. Research is going on and maybe it can be fruitful.
Q.24: Name the vaccine that is jointly developed by the German company BioNTech and US pharma giant Pfizer for COVID-19?
Ans. BNT162 is jointly developed by the German company BioNTech and US pharma giant Pfizer. It is a group of four potential vaccines based on the messenger RNA or mRNA, concept. On the other hand, PICOVACC is an inactivated vaccine developed by the private biopharma company Sinovac. These vaccines are in clinical trial phases.
Q.25: Name a clinical trial in which blood is transfused from recovered COVID-19 patients to a coronavirus patient who is in critical condition?
Ans. Plasma Therapy or Convalescent Plasma Therapy is a clinical trial in which blood is transfused from recovered COVID-19 patients to a coronavirus patient who is in critical condition.
Q.26: How does Coronavirus transmit?
Ans. Coronavirus (COVID-19) transmits through:
- When a person sneezes or cough, droplets spread in the air or fall on the ground and nearby surfaces.
- If another person is nearby and inhales the droplets or touches these surfaces and further touches his face, eyes or mouth, he or she can get an infection.
- If the distance is less than 1 meter from the infected person.
Q.27: What happens to a person suffering from COVID-19?
Ans. When a person suffering from COVID-19 then the following things happen:
- Around 80% of the people will require no treatment as such and will recover on their own.
- Around <20% or a small proportion may need hospitalisation.
- A very small proportion basically suffering from chronic illness may need admission in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU).
Q.28: Where was the first case of novel coronavirus identified?
Ans. The first case of novel coronavirus was identified in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.
Q.29: Which other diseases are related to coronavirus?
Ans. Coronavirus may cause illness from the common cold to more other serious diseases like Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV).
Q.30: What are mild symptoms of novel coronavirus?
Ans. People infected with novel coronavirus or 2019-nCoV or COVID-19 reported with mild symptoms such as fever, cough and shortness of breath. Whereas other common symptoms may include runny nose, headache, sore throat, a general feeling of unwell, etc.
Q.31: How coronavirus got its name?
Ans. Because of their crown-like projections and look on the surfaces coronaviruses got their name. The virus resembles a crown when viewed under an electron microscope. “Corona” in Latin means “halo” or “crown“.
Q.32: How can you protect yourself from the coronavirus?
Ans. Be inside your home unless an emergency requirement for outside. Keep 6 feet distance from others. According to WHO, a person can take precautions by covering the nose and mouth with mask when go outside in crowd. Use sanitizer regularly and wash your hand for 20 seconds whenever touch unknown thing or surfaces.
Q.33: What is the community spread of coronavirus?
Ans. Community spread means people have been infected with the virus in an area, including some who are not sure how or where they became infected. Each health department determines community spread differently based on local conditions.
Q.34: What is “flattening the curve” in COVID-19 news bulletin?
Ans. The graph is shown in news bulletin or on social media called “flattening the curve.” That graph shows a tall, narrow curve and a short, wide curve. Through the graph is a line that shows how many sick people a hospitals can treat. The tall curve goes above the line. That means too many people are sick at one time: We won’t have enough hospital beds for all the people who will need treatment. The flatter curve shows what happens if the spread of the virus slows down. The same number of people may get sick, but the infections happen over a longer span of time, so hospitals can treat everyone.
Q.35: Can an animal be infected from coronavirus?
Ans. Yes. The first US case of an animal testing positive for COVID-19 was a tiger at a NY zoo.
36: What is the community spread of coronavirus?
Ans. Social distancing means keeping people far enough apart that they can’t spread coronavirus. This can be in the following ways:
- Cancel events where lots of people gather, like concerts, festivals, and conferences.
- Work from home.
- Keep kids out of school.
- Don’t travel by plane or train.
- Visit with family and friends by phone and computer instead of in person.
- Stand at least 6 feet away from people.
- Don’t hug or shake hands with anyone except your immediate family.
- Do your shopping, especially for groceries or drugstore items, online if possible. If you do have to shop in person, keep a 6-foot distance between yourself and others.
Q. 37: When should someone who’s been exposed to coronavirus self-quarantine? And how?
Ans. To stop the spread of coronavirus, you’ll need to self-quarantine, or stay away from those who are well, if you’re sick. Because you may not show symptoms right away, you should also do this if you know that you’ve had exposure to someone who has it.
If you’ve tested positive for COVID-19, isolate yourself.
If your symptoms get worse, call your doctor before you visit a clinic or hospital. Ask your doctor to call the local or state health department. Follow their instructions to get medical help.
Isolate yourself until there’s no chance that you could spread the virus. Your doctor can tell you when it’s safe for you to stop isolating.
- Stay at home.
- Keep at least 6 feet away from everyone else in your household.
- Don’t have any visitors.
- Wash your hands often with soap and warm water.
- Don’t share personal items like dishes, utensils, and towels.
- Clean frequently touched surfaces like counters, doorknobs, phones, and remote controls.
- Stay at home in a room separate from everyone else, if at all possible.
- Avoid contact with all people and pets.
- Wear a face mask when you do have to be near other people.
Q. 38: How does the coronavirus affect a person’s body?
Ans. Viruses infect the body by latching onto and entering healthy cells. Once inside the body, the coronavirus makes copies of itself and multiplies throughout your body. The new coronavirus latches its spiky surface proteins to receptors on healthy cells, especially those in your lungs.
The coronavirus busts into the ACE2 receptors. Once inside, the coronavirus hijacks your healthy cells takes over command. Eventually, it kills some of the healthy cells.
Q. 39: How does coronavirus move inside the body?
Ans. The virus moves down the respiratory tract a healthy person. That’s the airway that includes your mouth, nose, throat, and lungs. The lower airways have more ACE2 receptors than the rest of your respiratory tract. So COVID-19 is more likely to go deeper than viruses like the common cold.
Q.40: Can coronavirus be transmitted through groceries, packages, or food?
Ans. You’re much more vulnerable to have COVID-19 from another person than from packages, groceries, or food. If you’re in a high-risk group, stay home and use a delivery service or have a friend shop for you. Have them leave the items outside your front door, if you can. If you do your own shopping, try to stay at least 6 feet away from other shoppers. And always wear a cloth face mask, sanitize hand and wash with soap for 20 seconds after shopping. There’s no evidence that anyone has gotten COVID-19 from food or food containers.
Q.41: What is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and its relation with COVID-19?
Ans. In the beginning of the outbreak of COVID-19 in China, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was one of the most common complications. With ARDS, the lungs are so severely damaged that fluid begins to leak into them. As a result, the body has trouble getting oxygen into the bloodstream. You may need mechanical help to breathe such as a ventilator until your lungs recover.
Q.42: What are the types of tests for COVID-19?
Ans. There are two kinds of tests are available for COVID-19: viral tests (RT-PCR test) and antibody tests.
- A viral test tells you if you have a current infection.
- An antibody test might tell you if you had a past infection. An antibody test might not show if you have a current infection because it can take 1–3 weeks after infection for your body to make antibodies. Having antibodies to the virus that causes COVID-19 might provide protection from getting infected with the virus again. If it does, we do not know how much protection the antibodies might provide or how long this protection might last.
- COVID-19 is the name of the infection and illness caused by the new strain of coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2. One type of COVID-19 test detects the genetic material (RNA) of the virus in a sample from the respiratory tract. COVID-19 serology blood tests detect antibodies produced in response to the infection. COVID-19 antigen tests detect viral protein in respiratory samples, but these tests are not in widespread use yet.
Q.43: What is RT-PCR test for COVID-19?
Ans. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique combining reverse transcription of RNA into DNA (in this context called complementary DNA or cDNA) and amplification of specific DNA targets using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It is primarily used to measure the amount of a specific RNA. This is achieved by monitoring the amplification reaction using fluorescence, a technique called real-time PCR or quantitative PCR (qPCR). Combined RT-PCR and qPCR are routinely used for analysis of gene expression and quantification of viral RNA in research and clinical settings.
44. What is antibody (serology) test for COVID-19?
Antibody tests may provide quick results, but should not be used to diagnose an active infection. Antibody tests only detect antibodies the immune system develops in response to the virus, not the virus itself. It can take days to several weeks to develop enough antibodies to be detected in a test.